Panj Bania refers to five prayers required in Sikhism. Panj is the Sikh word for five, and Bania is plural for bani meaning word or scripture.
The Panj Bania written in Gurmukhi script and commonly referred to as Nitnem
Nit-Nem (literally “Daily Discipline”) is a collection of selected Sikh hymns that are designated to be read by the Sikhs every day at pre-fixed times. It normally includes the Panj Bania which are read daily by baptized Sikhs in the morning between 3:00 am and 6:00 am (this period is considered as Amrit Vela or the Ambrosial Hours) and Rehras Sahib in the evening and Kirtan Sohila at night .
Panj Bania include morning evening and bedtime prayers.Required Morning Prayers – to be performed after bathing, following morning meditation at sunrise.
Japji Sahib – Japu(Punjabi: :ਜਪੁ), commonly known as Japji Sahib, is a Sikh hymn about God composed by Guru Nanak Dev Ji, the founder of the faith. It is headed by Mool Mantra and followed by 38 hymns and completed with a final Salok at the end of this composition.
It appears at the beginning in Guru Granth Sahib Ji, the Guru as well as Holy Book of the Sikhs.It is regarded amongst the most important Bani or ‘set of verses’ by the Sikhs, as it is first Bani in Nitnem.
Jap Sahib – The second prayer which is a composition of Guru Gobind Singh from Dasm Granth.
Jaap Sahib is the morning prayer of the Sikhs. The Prayer or Bani was composed by the tenth Sikh Master, Guru Gobind Singh Ji. This Bani is one of 5 Banis that a Sikh must recite everyday and is recited by the Panj Pyare while preparing Amrit on the occasion of Amrit Sanchar (initiation), a ceremony held to admit initiates into the Khalsa. The Jaap Sahib is chronologically the first Bani (holy hymn of Guru) in the Dasam Granth, which is said to have been compiled by Bhai Mani Singh around the year 1734. The Jaap Sahib is reminiscent of Japji Sahib, and is chronologically recited at second, in the daily morning prayer of a Sikh.
Guru Nanak Dev Ji bows to Vahiguru, ādesu tisai ādesu, and this same devotion is continued on by the Tenth Nanak – Guru Gobind Singh. Like the Jap jī Sāhib the Jāp Sāhib is written in metres or chhaṅds. Guru Nanak does not label the metres while Guru Gobind Singh does, but he gives them new names to show their style of movement.
Like the Mῡl mantra, the first verse Chhappai Chhaṅd Tva Prasādi states that Vahiguru has no features, caste, lineage etc. The Guru states that his purpose of this composition is to ‘praise You by your active names (karam nām)’, God’s shaktī or power! In the next Bhujaṅg Prayāt Chhaṅd, the Metre of the Fast Moving Cobra (Chhaṅd seems to be from the same root as the English word chant). The Guru bows to the Creator by repeating the word Namastvaṅ – Namaskār Tvaṅ/taṅ – Tvaṅῡ – I bow to You.
The Jāp Sāhib was written at Bhagpura in the vicinity of Anandpur Sahib, it was here that the Guru recited this bīr ras bāṇī, while his warriors did Gatka/Shastravidia and horse riding. In this bāṇī, there are many allusions to the khaṅḍe-ki-pāhul or Amrit saāchār just like the Jap jī Sāhib – where the Guru talks about how to process the amrit before the salok. In this Jāp Sāhib we also have the stanza of the Bhagwatī or Bhagautī the Khaṅḍā (Double-Edged Sword), of sweetness – Madhubhār and so on. There are also direct references to fighting Charpaṭ and Bhujaṅg Prayāt Chhaṅd. The Guru made the community into Saint Warriors, and ends this exciting, powerful, rhythmic bāṇī, with Sadā Aṅg Saṅge, which means that Vahiguru is in us, and all around us.
Like Jap jī Sāhib is the first bāṇī of Adi Guru Granth Sahib ji Maharaj, the Jāp Sāhib is the first bāṇī of the Dasam Granth Sahib. According to the contemporary source a Rahitnāmā by Bhai Chaupa Singh Shahīd, the Guru composed this bāṇī when he was about sixteen years old, and this was during 1677-1682 AD.
From Jap we get ajapā Jāp, and then we proceed to vairāg:
Tav Prasaad Swaye – The third prayer Tav-Prasad Savaiye (Punjabi: :ਤ੍ਵਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ ਸ੍ਵਯੇ) is a short composition of 10 stanzas which is part of daily liturgy among Sikhs. It was penned down by Guru Gobind Singh and is part of his composition: Akal Ustat (The praise of God).  This is an important composition which is read during Amrit Sanchar. This Bani appears in the Dasam Granth on pages 13 to 15, starting from Stanza 21 of Akal Ustat.
Tavprasad means with thy grace. This composition strongly rejects Idolatry, Pilgrimages, Grave Worshiping, Samadhis of Yogis and other ritualistic beliefs in Hinduism, Jainism and Islam so thereby included in Nitnem, daily morning prayers of Sikhs. It is recited after completing Jaap Sahib.
It is started from Sravag Sudh Samuh Sidhan Ke and ends upto Koor Kriya Urjheo Sab Hi Jag. Among many famous quotes of Tav Parsad Savaiye, Jin Prem Kiyo Tin Hi Prabhu Paayo is widely quoted by different scholars of different religions.
Required Evening Prayers – to be performed at sunset.
Rehras(Punjabi: ਰਹਰਾਸਿ), commonly known as Rehras Sahib or Sodar Rehras, is daily evening prayer of the Sikhs and is part of Nitnem. It includes hymns from Guru Granth Sahib and Dasam Granth.
It contains hymns of So Dar, So Purakh, Chopai, Anand Sahib and Mundavani, among which Chopai is from Dasam Granth. This Bani is a collection of hymns of five Sikh Gurus: Guru Nanak Dev, Guru Amar Das, Guru Ram Das, Guru Arjan Dev and Guru Gobind Singh.
The fourth prayer of the day which includes:
Nine Compositions of Guru Nanak, Guru Raam Das, and Guru Arjun Dev which immediately follow Japji Sahib in the Guru Granth starting with “Sodar” and ending with final verse of “Saran pare ki rakho sarma”.
Compositions of Guru Gobind Singh including Benti Chaupai – “Hamaree karo hath dai rachai”, Swaye – “Pae gahe jab te tumre,” Dhora – “Sagal duar kau chhad kai”.
Anand Sahib – First five and final verses, composed by Guru Amar Daas.The Anand Sahib is a collection of hymns in Sikhism, written in the Ramkali Raag by Guru Amar Das, the third Guru of the Sikhs. It appears on the pages 917 to 922 in Guru Granth Sahib. The word Anand means complete happiness. The Anand Sahib is a part of the Nitnem (daily prayers) which are read by Amritdhari Sikhs before dawn. Anand Sahib is chanted at all the religious ceremonies of the Sikhs irrespective of the nature of event. There are two versions of Anand Sahib; one which extends 40 pauries and one shorter version often called Chhota Anand Sahib which extends the first 5 pauries and then skips to the very last Pauri. This shorter version of Anand Sahib is usually recited at the closing ceremonies before Ardas. The Chhota Anand Sahib is included at the end of Rehras.
Required Bedtime Prayers – to be performed last thing before sleeping.
Kirtan Sohila – The fifth prayer Kirtan Sohila is a night prayer in Sikhism. Its name means ‘Song of Praise’. It is composed of five hymns or shabad, the first three by Guru Nanak Dev, the fourth by Guru Ram Das and the fifth by Guru Arjan Dev. This hymn is usually recited at the conclusion of evening ceremonies at the Gurdwara and also recited as part of Sikh funeral services.
As part of their morning or daily routine, many gursikhs, (very devout Sikhs), recite the Amrit banis. Selections from Guru Granth like Shabad Hazarre and Sukhmani Sahib, both compositions of Guru Arjun Dev, and others by Guru Gobind Singh may also be read.
Pronunciation: Panj sounds like sponge. Bani-a sounds like bonny – the a has the sound of the u in uh.